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License iLO - HP Integrated Lights-Out

License iLO -  HP Integrated Lights-Out

Integrated Lights-Out, or iLO, is a proprietary embedded server management technology by Hewlett-Packard which provides out-of-band management facilities. The physical 

connection is an Ethernet port that can be found on most Proliant servers of the 300 and above series.

iLO has similar functionality to the lights out management (LOM) technology offered by other vendors, for example Sun/Oracle's LOM port, Dell DRAC, the IBM Remote Supervisor Adapter and Cisco CIMC.

Contents  [hide]

1Features

2Availability

3Versions

4Programming Interfaces

5See also

6References

7External links

Features[edit]

iLO makes it possible to perform activities on an HP server from a remote location. The iLO card has a separate network connection (and its own IP address) to which one can connect via HTTPS. Possible options are:

Reset the server (in case the server doesn't respond anymore via the normal network card)

Power-up the server (possible to do this from a remote location, even if the server is shut down)

Remote system console (in some cases however an 'Advanced license' may be required for some of the utilities to work)

Mount remote physical CD/DVD drive or image

Access the server's Integrated Management Log (IML)

Can be manipulated remotely through XML-based Remote Insight Board Command Language (RIBCL)

Full command-line interface support through RS-232 port (shared with system), though the inability to enter function keys prevents certain operations

iLO provides some other utilities like virtual media (CD, floppy), virtual power and a remote console. iLO is either embedded on the system board, or available as a PCI card.

Availability[edit]

iLO is embedded or available on some HP ProLiant and Integrity servers.

Prior to iLO, Compaq created several other lights out management products. The original was the Remote Insight Board (RIB), which was available as an EISA or PCI expansion card. RIB was replaced with RILOE (Remote Insight Light-Out Edition), which was only available for PCI. The original RILOE was replaced with RILOE II. HP stopped manufacturing RILOE II in 2006. The final firmware version for RILOE is 2.53(A) dated 9 Mar 2004 and for RILOE II is 1.21 dated 5 July 2006.

For some ProLiant 100 series servers there is a "Lights Out 100" option, which has more limited functionality. The LO100 is a traditional IPMI BMC, and does not share hardware or firmware with iLO.

Versions[edit]

There have been multiple generations of iLO, each generation noted by a single digit number ("iLO 2"). Some generations of iLO are segmented into different editions, based on what features are licensed.[1] iLO includes updatable firmware, for which HP periodically releases new versions.

[hide]NameServersLatest FirmwareComments

iLOProLiant G2, G3, and G4 servers1.96 released 30 April 2014

iLO 2ProLiant G5 and G6 servers, model numbers 300 and higher2.29 released 7 October 2015

iLO 3ProLiant G7 servers1.88 released 24 Oct 2016

iLO 4ProLiant Gen8 and Gen9 servers2.54 released 7 July 2017

iLO 5ProLiant Gen10 servers1.10 released 12 July 2017


برچسب: ilo چيست، لايسنس ilo چيست، لايسنس ilo، درخواست لايسنس ilo، لايسنس ilo سرور hp، دانلود لايسنس ilo، اهميت لايسنس ilo، مديريت راه دور سرور hp،
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سوئيچ سيسكو

سوئيچ دستگاهي است كه در شبكه هاي مخابراتي مورد استفاده قرار مي گيرد. كاري كه سوئيچ به انجام مي رساند اين است كه داده هاي ورودي را از هر يك از پورت هاي ورودي چندگانه ، به پورت خروجي خاص هدايت مي كند ، به اين ترتيب اطلاعات در مقصد مورد نظر دريافت مي شوند . در شبكه تلفن سنتي (circuit-switched) ، يك يا چند سوئيچ به كار گرفته مي شوند . اين سوئيچ ها يك مدار اختصاصي را جهت برقراري اتصال موقت ، بوجود مي آورند ، به اين ترتيب ارتباط بين دو يا چند نفر برقرار مي شود. در شبكه محلي اترنت (LAN) ، يك سوئيچ با توجه به فريم ورودي آدرس فيزيكي ( MAC آدرس ) مقصد را تعيين مي كند و فريم حاوي ديتا را به طور مستقيم به سمت مقصد هدايت مي كند . در شبكه  گسترده مانند اينترنت، سوئيچ آدرس مقصد را با توجه به آدرس IP كه در هر بسته ديتا به طور اختصاصي تعريف شده است؛ مشخص مي كند.  از جمله مهمترين كمپاني هاي توليد كننده سوئيچ ، كمپاني سيسكو است كه سوئيچ هاي سيسكو را در مدل هاي مختلف توليد مي كند .

منبع : فاراد سيستم 

برچسب: سوئيچ سيسكو، انواع سوئيچ سيسكو، قيمت سوئيچ سيسكو، نصب سوئيچ سيسكو، پيكربندي سوئيچ سيسكو، ارائه راه كار هاي سوئيچينگ،
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سوئيچ سيسكو لايه 2 و سوئيچ لايه 3

سوئيچ لايه 2 و سوئيچ لايه 3 : 

سوئيچ هاي لايه 2 : در مدل ارتباطات OSI يك سوئيچ در Layer 2 يا  لايه Data-link عمل كرده و توابع سوئيچينگ را اجرا مي كند . اين نوع ، ساده ترين مدل سوئيچ ها مي باشند . به عبارت ديگر، اين مدل از سوئيچ ها  “مك آدرس ” را با توجه به  packet or data unit  تعيين مي كند. . سوئيچ هاي لايه 2 ساده ترين نوع از سوئيچ ها مي باشند .مانند سوئيچ 2960

سوئيچ هاي لايه 3 : در شبكه هاي گسترده اي مانند اينترنت، تعيين آدرس مقصد نيازمند جستجو در جدول مسيريابي مي باشد . با وجود اينكه اين عمل توسط روتر انجام مي شود اما برخي از سوئيچ هاي امروزه قابليت انجام عمل routing را نيز دارند . اين مدل از سوئيچ ها كه قادر به انجام توابع مسيريابي هستند در لايه 3 يا لايه شبكه مدل OSI  قرار مي گيرند . سوئيچ هاي لايه  3 را مي توان ، سوئيچ هاي IP ناميد. به عنوان مثال مي توان به انواع سوئيچ سيسكو  اشاره كرد از جمله  سوئيچ سيسكو 6500 Catalyst ، سوئيچ سيسكو Catalyst 6800 و سوئيچ سيسكو Nexus  از اين مدل سويئچ ها مي باشند .


برچسب: سوئيچ سيسكو، انواع سوئيچ سيسكو، قيمت سوئيچ سيسكو، نصب سوئيچ سيسكو، پيكربندي سوئيچ سيسكو، ارائه راه كار هاي سوئيچينگ، سوئيچ سيسكو 6500 Catalyst، سوئيچ سيسكو Nexus، سوئيچ سيسكو Catalyst،
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سوئيچ سيسكو Nexus 5000

سوئيچ سيسكو

سوئيچ سيسكو Nexus 5000

يكي ديگر از محصولات ميان رده كمپاني سيسكو ، سوئيچ  هاي سري Nexus 5000 مي باشد . اين سوئيچ ها نيز جهت ارائه (ToR)وtop-of-rack با گنجايش و ظرفيت بالا در لايه هاي 2 و 3 بهينه شده اند. يكي از قابليت هاي چشم گير اين رده از محصولات ، پشتيباني از 10/40 گيگابيت اترنت مي باشد . كمپاني سيسكو اين محصولات را در فرم فاكتورهاي 2 و 4 يونيت با پورت هاي متعدد طراحي كرده است . سوئيچ هاي سري Nexus 5000 مانند بخشي از Cisco Unified Fabric portfolio ، در دو پلت فرم Nexus 5500 و Nexus 5600 به بازار عرضه شده اند .

اين محصولات از مجموعه كامل ويژگي هاي جامع NX-OS پشتباني مي كنند و علاوه بر اين قابليت مقياس پذيري را تا 10/40 گيگابيت اترنت ارائه مي دهند . ويژگي هاي بيان شده از سوئيچ سيسكو Nexus 5000  توانمند كردن اين محصولات شده است . از جمله قابليت هاي ديگري كه مي توان به آنها اشاره كرد كارايي بالا و بهره وري عملياتي است . لازم به ذكر است كه طراحي بكار رفته در اين محصولات بسيار انعطاف پذير است .

منبع : faradsys.com

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منبع 


برچسب: سوئيچ سيسكو، انواع سوئيچ سيسكو، قيمت سوئيچ سيسكو، نصب سوئيچ سيسكو، پيكربندي سوئيچ سيسكو، ارائه راه كار هاي سوئيچينگ، سوئيچ سيسكو 6500 Catalyst، سوئيچ سيسكو Nexus، سوئيچ سيسكو Catalyst،
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سوئيچ سيسكو Nexus 5500

سوئيچ سيسكو-سوئيچ Nexus 5600 - پيكربندي سوئيچ نكسوس

ويژگي ها و قابليت هاي سوئيچ سيسكو Nexus 5500

سوئيچ سيسكو Nexus 5500 يكي از انواع سوئيچ هاي " سيسكو nexus 5000 " است كه از قابليت همگرايي پشتيباني مي كند . اين قابليت از طريق اتصالات گسترده اي كه سرعت بالايي دارند ،  ارائه مي شود . قابليت بيان شده منجر شده است  كه سوئيچ Nexus 5500 جهت دسترسي به  top-of-rack در محيط هاي سنتي بسيار ايده آل و مناسب باشد .

ويژگي ها :

امكان ارائه مقياس پذيري در ابعاد بزرگتر

ايجاد سهولت بيشتر در عمليات 

پشتيباني از معماري انعطاف پذير 


برچسب: سوئيچ سيسكو، انواع سوئيچ سيسكو، قيمت سوئيچ سيسكو، نصب سوئيچ سيسكو، پيكربندي سوئيچ سيسكو، ارائه راه كار هاي سوئيچينگ، سوئيچ سيسكو Nexus 5000، سوئيچ سيسكو Nexus، سوئيچ سيسكو Catalyst،
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سوئيچ سيسكو Nexus 5600

سوئيچ سيسكو-سوئيچ Nexus 5500 - پيكربندي سوئيچ نكسوس

ويژگي ها و قابليت هاي سوئيچ سيسكو  Nexus 5600

پلت فرم سيسكو Nexus 5600 از اتصالات گسترده اي پشتيباني مي كند . قابليت هايي كه اين محصول دارد زمان تاخير كم و پشتيباني از تكنولوژي (Virtual Extensible LAN (VXLAN مي باشد . اين قابليت ها سوئيچ فوق را به يك سوئيچ ايده آل جهت دسترسي به Access Point و (End-of-Rack (EoR تبديل كرده است. از ديگر توانمندي هاي اين پلت فرم مي توان  به سريع تر شدن دسترسي به (Fabric Extender (FEX ، همگراشدن ، مجازي سازي و توسعه ابري (Cloud) اشاره كرد .

ويژگي ها :

امكان ارائه مقياس پذيري در ابعاد بزرگتر

ايجاد سهولت بيشتر در عمليات 

پشتيباني از معماري انعطاف پذير 


برچسب: سوئيچ سيسكو، انواع سوئيچ سيسكو، قيمت سوئيچ سيسكو، نصب سوئيچ سيسكو، پيكربندي سوئيچ سيسكو، ارائه راه كار هاي سوئيچينگ، سوئيچ سيسكو Nexus 5000، سوئيچ سيسكو Nexus، سوئيچ سيسكو Catalyst،
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Data Center Switch

Data Center Switch : The Cisco Nexus family of products provides a wide range of business benefits.

Convergence

Cisco Nexus solutions simplify the data center network by converging LANs and SANs, using Data Center Bridging (DCB), Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE)protocols, and Unified Ports.

  • Lower total cost of ownership by up to 50 percent
  • Reduce capital expenses through fewer host adapters, switches, and cables
  • Cut operational expenses through reduced power, cooling, rack space, and floor space requirements
  • Adopt solutions incrementally, without complete upgrade
  • Minimize disruptions to existing management and operations

Scalability

Cisco Nexus solutions help enterprises scale for the more-complex workloads of virtualization, the proliferation of virtual machines, and the challenges of cloud computing.

  • Unify all network locations in one environment
  • Support efficient access and use of resources, regardless of size or scope
  • Provide resilient, scalable networks with predictable performance and reduced complexity
  • Fabric extensibility with simplified management

Intelligence

Cisco Nexus delivers intelligent services directly into the network fabric. It transparently extends the network to encompass all network locations into a single, extended environment with consistent services and policy.

  • Make services available to applications or workloads, and to different data-center infrastructure components
  • Scale service delivery capability automatically with changes in network size
  • Deploy applications faster, with policy-based compliance instead of physical infrastructure
  • changes

منبع : cisco.com


برچسب: سوئيچ سيسكو، انواع سوئيچ سيسكو، قيمت سوئيچ سيسكو، نصب سوئيچ سيسكو، سوئيچ ديتاسنتر، data center switch،
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مقايسه مدل هاي سوئيچ سيسكو Nexus 9500

مقايسه مدل هاي سوئيچ سيسكو Nexus 9500

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جدول مقايسه مدل هاي سوئيچ سيسكو Nexus 9500 در لينك زير :

http://faradsys.com/nexus-9500/

در اين جدول توانايي سخت افزاري سوئيچ هاي سيسكو سري Nexus 9000 را مبناي مقايسه قرار گرفته است . جهت كسب جزئيات بيشتر در مورد اين سوئيچ ها مي توانيد به صفحه سوئيچ سيسكو Nexus 9000 مراجعه كنيد . همچنين پيشنهاد مي شود از دانش متخصصان نيز بهره مند شويد.


برچسب: سوئيچ سيسكو، انواع سوئيچ سيسكو، قيمت سوئيچ سيسكو، نصب سوئيچ سيسكو، پيكربندي سوئيچ سيسكو، مقايسه سوئيچ سيسكو،
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سوئيچ شبكه

switch

A network switch (also called switching hub, bridging hub, officially MAC bridge[1]) is a computer networking device that connects devices together on a computer network by using packet switching to receive, process, and forward data to the destination device.

A network switch is a multiport network bridge that uses hardware addresses to process and forward data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Some switches can also process data at the network layer (layer 3) by additionally incorporating routing functionality that most commonly uses IP addresses to perform packet forwarding; such switches are commonly known as layer-3 switches or multilayer switches.[2]

Switches for Ethernet are the most common form, and the first Ethernet switch was introduced by Kalpana in 1990.[3] Switches also exist for other types of networks including Fibre Channel, Asynchronous Transfer Mode, and InfiniBand.

Unlike less advanced repeater hubs, which broadcast the same data out of each of its ports and let the devices decide what data they need, a network switch forwards data only to the devices that need to receive it.[4]


Cisco small business SG300-28 28-port Gigabit Ethernet rackmount switch and its internals
A switch is a device in a computer network that electrically and logically connects together other devices. Multiple data cables are plugged into a switch to enable communication between different networked devices. Switches manage the flow of data across a network by transmitting a received network packet only to the one or more devices for which the packet is intended. Each networked device connected to a switch can be identified by its network address, allowing the switch to regulate the flow of traffic. This maximizes the security and efficiency of the network.

When a repeater hub is replaced with an Ethernet switch, the single large collision domain used by the hub is split up into smaller ones, reducing or eliminating the possibility and scope of collisions and, as a result, increasing the potential throughput. Because broadcasts are still being forwarded to all connected devices, the newly formed network segment continues to be a broadcast domain.

A switch is more intelligent than a repeater hub, which simply retransmits packets out of every port of the hub except the port on which the packet was received, unable to distinguish different recipients, and achieving an overall lower network efficiency.

Network design[edit]
An Ethernet switch operates at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model to create a separate collision domain for each switch port. Each device connected to a switch port can transfer data to any of the other ones at a time, and the transmissions will not interfere – with the limitation that, in half duplex mode, each switch port can only either receive from or transmit to its connected device at a certain time. In full duplex mode, each switch port can simultaneously transmit and receive, assuming the connected device also supports full duplex mode.[5]

In the case of using a repeater hub, only a single transmission could take place at a time for all ports combined, so they would all share the bandwidth and run in half duplex. Necessary arbitration would also result in collisions, requiring retransmissions.

Applications[edit]
The network switch plays an integral role in most modern Ethernet local area networks (LANs). Mid-to-large sized LANs contain a number of linked managed switches. Small office/home office (SOHO) applications typically use a single switch, or an all-purpose converged device such as a residential gateway to access small office/home broadband services such as DSL or cable Internet. In most of these cases, the end-user device contains a router and components that interface to the particular physical broadband technology. User devices may also include a telephone interface for Voice over IP (VoIP) protocol.

Micro-segmentation[edit]
Segmentation involves the use of a bridge or a switch (or a router) to split a larger collision domain into smaller ones in order to reduce collision probability, and to improve overall network throughput. In the extreme case (i.e. micro-segmentation), each device is located on a dedicated switch port. In contrast to an Ethernet hub, there is a separate collision domain on each of the switch ports. This allows computers to have dedicated bandwidth on point-to-point connections to the network and also to run in full-duplex without collisions. Full-duplex mode has only one transmitter and one receiver per "collision domain", making collisions impossible.

Role of switches in a network[edit]
Switches may operate at one or more layers of the OSI model, including the data link and network layers. A device that operates simultaneously at more than one of these layers is known as a multilayer switch.

In switches intended for commercial use, built-in or modular interfaces make it possible to connect different types of networks, including Ethernet, Fibre Channel, RapidIO, ATM, ITU-T G.hn and 802.11. This connectivity can be at any of the layers mentioned. While the layer-2 functionality is adequate for bandwidth-shifting within one technology, interconnecting technologies such as Ethernet and token ring is performed easier at layer 3 or via routing.[6] Devices that interconnect at the layer 3 are traditionally called routers, so layer 3 switches can also be regarded as relatively primitive and specialized routers.[7]

Where there is a need for a great deal of analysis of network performance and security, switches may be connected between WAN routers as places for analytic modules. Some vendors provide firewall,[8][9] network intrusion detection,[10] and performance analysis modules that can plug into switch ports. Some of these functions may be on combined modules.[11]

In other cases, the switch is used to create a mirror image of data that can go to an external device. Since most switch port mirroring provides only one mirrored stream, network hubs can be useful for fanning out data to several read-only analyzers, such as intrusion detection systems and packet sniffers.

Layer-specific functionality[edit]
Main article: Multilayer switch

A modular network switch with three network modules (a total of 24 Ethernet and 14 Fast Ethernet ports) and one power supply.
While switches may learn about topologies at many layers, and forward at one or more layers, they do tend to have common features. Other than for high-performance applications, modern commercial switches use primarily Ethernet interfaces.

At any layer, a modern switch may implement power over Ethernet (PoE), which avoids the need for attached devices, such as a VoIP phone or wireless access point, to have a separate power supply. Since switches can have redundant power circuits connected to uninterruptible power supplies, the connected device can continue operating even when regular office power fails.

Layer 1 (hubs vs. higher-layer switches)[edit]
A network hub, or a repeater, is a simple network device that does not manage any of the traffic coming through it. Any packet entering a port is flooded out or "repeated" on every other port, except for the port of entry. Specifically, each bit or symbol is repeated as it flows in (with a minimum delay for the line interface). Due to this, a repeater hub can only receive and forward at a single speed.[12] Since every packet is repeated on every other port, packet collisions affect the entire network, limiting its overall capacity.

There are specialized applications in which a network hub can be useful, such as copying traffic to multiple network sensors. High-end network switches usually have a feature called port mirroring that provides the same functionality.

A network switch creates the layer 1 end-to-end connection only virtually, while originally it was mandatory. The bridging function of a switch uses information taken from layer 2 to select for each packet the particular port(s) it has to be forwarded to, removing the requirement that every node is presented with all traffic. As a result, the connection lines are not "switched" literally, instead they only appear that way on the packet level.

By the early 2000s, there was little price difference between a hub and a low-end switch.[13]

Layer 2[edit]
A network bridge, operating at the data link layer, may interconnect a small number of devices in a home or the office. This is a trivial case of bridging, in which the bridge learns the MAC address of each connected device. Bridges also buffer an incoming packet and adapt the transmission speed to that of the outgoing port.

Classic bridges may also interconnect using a spanning tree protocol that disables links so that the resulting local area network is a tree without loops. In contrast to routers, spanning tree bridges must have topologies with only one active path between two points. The older IEEE 802.1D spanning tree protocol could be quite slow, with forwarding stopping for 30 seconds while the spanning tree reconverged. A Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol was introduced as IEEE 802.1w. The newest standard Shortest path bridging (IEEE 802.1aq) is the next logical progression and incorporates all the older Spanning Tree Protocols (IEEE 802.1D STP, IEEE 802.1w RSTP, IEEE 802.1s MSTP) that blocked traffic on all but one alternative path. IEEE 802.1aq (Shortest Path Bridging SPB) allows all paths to be active with multiple equal cost paths, provides much larger layer 2 topologies (up to 16 million compared to the 4096 VLANs limit),[14] faster convergence, and improves the use of the mesh topologies through increased bandwidth and redundancy between all devices by allowing traffic to load share across all paths of a mesh network.[15][16][17][18]

While layer 2 switch remains more of a marketing term than a technical term,[citation needed] the products that were introduced as "switches" tended to use microsegmentation and full duplex to prevent collisions among devices connected to Ethernet. By using an internal forwarding plane much faster than any interface, they give the impression of simultaneous paths among multiple devices. 'Non-blocking' devices use a forwarding plane or equivalent method fast enough to allow full duplex traffic for each port simultaneously.

Once a bridge learns the addresses of its connected nodes, it forwards data link layer frames using a layer 2 forwarding method. There are four forwarding methods a bridge can use, of which the second through fourth methods were performance-increasing methods when used on "switch" products with the same input and output port bandwidths:

Store and forward: the switch buffers and verifies each frame before forwarding it; a frame is received in its entirety before it is forwarded.
Cut through: the switch starts forwarding after the frame's destination address is received. There is no error checking with this method. When the outgoing port is busy at the time, the switch falls back to store-and-forward operation. Also, when the egress port is running at a faster data rate than the ingress port, store-and-forward is usually used.
Fragment free: a method that attempts to retain the benefits of both store and forward and cut through. Fragment free checks the first 64 bytes of the frame, where addressing information is stored. According to Ethernet specifications, collisions should be detected during the first 64 bytes of the frame, so frames that are in error because of a collision will not be forwarded. This way the frame will always reach its intended destination. Error checking of the actual data in the packet is left for the end device.
Adaptive switching: a method of automatically selecting between the other three modes.[19][20]
While there are specialized applications, such as storage area networks, where the input and output interfaces are the same bandwidth, this is not always the case in general LAN applications. In LANs, a switch used for end user access typically concentrates lower bandwidth and uplinks into a higher bandwidth.

Layer 3[edit]
Within the confines of the Ethernet physical layer, a layer-3 switch can perform some or all of the functions normally performed by a router. The most common layer-3 capability is awareness of IP multicast through IGMP snooping. With this awareness, a layer-3 switch can increase efficiency by delivering the traffic of a multicast group only to ports where the attached device has signalled that it wants to listen to that group.

Layer 4[edit]
While the exact meaning of the term layer-4 switch is vendor-dependent, it almost always starts with a capability for network address translation, but then adds some type of load distribution based on TCP sessions.[21]

The device may include a stateful firewall, a VPN concentrator, or be an IPSec security gateway.

Layer 7[edit]
Layer-7 switches may distribute the load based on uniform resource locators (URLs), or by using some installation-specific technique to recognize application-level transactions. A layer-7 switch may include a web cache and participate in a content delivery network (CDN).[22]

Types of switches[edit]

A rack-mounted 24-port 3Com switch
Form factors[edit]
Switches are available in many form factors, including: desktop units not mounted in an [[enclosure (engineering)|enclosure] which are typically intended to be used in a home or office environment outside a wiring closet; rack-mounted switches for use in an equipment rack; large chassis units with swappable module cards; DIN rail mounted for use in industrial environments; and small installation switches, mounted into a cable duct, floor box or communications tower, as found, for example, in FTTO Infrastructures.


This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this section to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available. (November 2014)
Configuration options[edit]
Unmanaged switches – these switches have no configuration interface or options. They are plug and play. They are typically the least expensive switches, and therefore often used in a small office/home office environment. Unmanaged switches can be desktop or rack mounted.
Managed switches – these switches have one or more methods to modify the operation of the switch. Common management methods include: a command-line interface (CLI) accessed via serial console, telnet or Secure Shell, an embedded Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) agent allowing management from a remote console or management station, or a web interface for management from a web browser. Examples of configuration changes that one can do from a managed switch include: enabling features such as Spanning Tree Protocol or port mirroring, setting port bandwidth, creating or modifying virtual LANs (VLANs), etc. Two sub-classes of managed switches are marketed today:
Smart (or intelligent) switches – these are managed switches with a limited set of management features. Likewise "web-managed" switches are switches which fall into a market niche between unmanaged and managed. For a price much lower than a fully managed switch they provide a web interface (and usually no CLI access) and allow configuration of basic settings, such as VLANs, port-bandwidth and duplex.[23]
Enterprise managed (or fully managed) switches – these have a full set of management features, including CLI, SNMP agent, and web interface. They may have additional features to manipulate configurations, such as the ability to display, modify, backup and restore configurations. Compared with smart switches, enterprise switches have more features that can be customized or optimized, and are generally more expensive than smart switches. Enterprise switches are typically found in networks with larger number of switches and connections, where centralized management is a significant savings in administrative time and effort. A stackable switch is a version of enterprise-managed switch.
Typical switch management features[edit]

A couple of managed D-Link Gigabit Ethernet rackmount switches, connected to the Ethernet ports on a few patch panels using Category 6 patch cables (all equipment is installed in a standard 19-inch rack)
Turn particular port range on or off
Link bandwidth and duplex settings
Priority settings for ports
IP management by IP clustering
MAC filtering and other types of "port security" features which prevent MAC flooding
Use of Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and Shortest Path Bridging (SPB) technologies
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) monitoring of device and link health
Port mirroring (also known as: port monitoring, spanning port, SPAN port, roving analysis port or link mode port)
Link aggregation (also known as bonding, trunking or teaming) allows the use of multiple ports for the same connection achieving higher data transfer rates
VLAN settings. Creating VLANs can serve security and performance goals by reducing the size of the broadcast domain
802.1X network access control
IGMP snooping
Traffic monitoring on a switched network[edit]
Unless port mirroring or other methods such as RMON, SMON or sFlow are implemented in a switch,[24] it is difficult to monitor traffic that is bridged using a switch because only the sending and receiving ports can see the traffic. These monitoring features are rarely present on consumer-grade switches.

Two popular methods that are specifically designed to allow a network analyst to monitor traffic are:

Port mirroring – the switch sends a copy of network packets to a monitoring network connection.
SMON – "Switch Monitoring" is described by RFC 2613 and is a protocol for controlling facilities such as port mirroring.
Another method to monitor may be to connect a layer-1 hub between the monitored device and its switch port. This will induce minor delay, but will provide multiple interfaces that can be used to monitor the individual switch port.

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